Steps in conducting a Research


Research is a scientific process and therefore, involves many steps in carrying out the Research. It requires proper planning, information gathering, analyzing and inferring of data. Steps in conducting a research may be presented in different ways by experts and academicians depending on the nature of study. However, they differ only in the way of presenting the information. The process of doing research is mostly sequential and requires that the researcher goes through each step for completing the research study successfully.

For the purpose of making it easy and simple, the steps in conducting a research can be broadly divided into the following phases:

  • Concept Planning Phase
  • Action Phase
  • Dissemination Phase

Steps in conducting a Research

Concept Planning Phase:

This phase involves the following:

Selection of Topic & Problem Identification

The first step in the research process is identifying and selecting a topic for research. Choose a topic that interests you; that you are passionate about to take it up for research. Once you are sure about the topic, identify the problem(s) associated with the topic.

Information Gathering

Analyze the topic from various perspectives. Read ample literature to understand what experts and scholars have said about the topic. Talk to people from related fields and get more information about the topic.

Defining the Problem & Framing Research Questions

Narrow down the problem. Identify what exactly is the problem that you would like to concentrate in your research. List down all possible research questions that you would like to answer and then formulate research questions that the research will focus on.

Statement of the Problem

Specify clearly your statement of the problem. Enumerate what others have done with reference to the problem. Focus on the prevailing gaps that need to be addressed. Write about the problem or issue that will be addressed in your research and justify the need of the study.

Review of Literature

Read extensively about the topic and the problem under study. Review of literature is important in almost every stage of the research. You need to go back to the available literature to understand, study, compare and contrast your research with other studies. Keep note of relevant literature and do not forget to quote the references.

Framing Objectives and Hypothesis

At this point, you will have enough information to frame the objectives for your study. Draw relevant hypothesis that you will be proving or disproving later on in your research.

Action Phase:

In the Action phase, you will be doing the following:

Research Methodology

Identify and finalize the research design, place of study, target group, data collection methods, and sampling size & technique. Each of these requires careful thinking and objectivity. Furthermore, it depends on the objectives, hypothesis and the nature of your study.

Developing Questionnaire

Develop appropriate questionnaire based on the variables that you have identified. In case you wish to use a scale, choose one that will be applicable to your research. Identify dependent, independent, and intervening variables.

Data collection

Select the method of data collection depending on the nature and scope of your study. Ensure that the collected data is complete and free from errors.

Analysis & Interpretation

This involves performing various statistical tests on the data. Choose and apply the right kind of statistical analysis depending on the hypothesis. Interpretation involves drawing inferences from the analyzed result. You will support the inferences with tables and charts. Furthermore, you will have to make appropriate discussion and derive major findings.

Conclusions & Recommendations

Based on the inferences make your conclusions and give your recommendations.

Dissemination Phase:

Once your research is complete, the final step is to make people know about your study.

This involves the following:

Report Writing

Report writing is a crucial step in the research process. It involves various steps for effective presentation of your research work to relevant people


It is necessary to give due acknowledgment for the sources of your literature. You may follow the prescribed method for referencing your literature.


Invariably, you will have to present your research work to relevant audience such as an academic panel or interview panel. All your hard work depends on how convincingly you present your research to concerned audience.

Sharing in Media

You can publish or share your research work in suitable media to get better visibility of your work.

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